The requirements of cash discipline continue to keep accountants and financial controllers of enterprises in good shape. There are still restrictions on cash transactions, for non-compliance with which businesses face significant fines.

It is important to understand that due to the growth in sales, you can quietly cross the line, beyond which it is already necessary to approve the cash limit at the enterprise. As a result, you can break the law and be held liable. To avoid this, you should know in what cases and how the cash limit is set. **Let’s find out all the details in this article.**

## Cash limit: what is it

Legal entities and individual entrepreneurs, in certain cases, **must limit the amount of cash that they have in the cash register at the end of the working day**. Thus, the state is trying to ensure enterprises against large losses as a result of theft, as well as to force the use of non-cash payments to a greater extent.

The business entities themselves must calculate and approve the limit according to a special formula, based on the cash turnover and performance indicators of the company.

Legally, this norm is provided for by the Instruction of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation dated March 11, 2014 No. 3210-U, which establishes the procedure for conducting cash transactions for small businesses and individual entrepreneurs. **Checks compliance with the limit of the cash desk of the Federal Tax Service.**

## Who is obliged to comply with the cash limit in 2022?

According to the law, medium and large enterprises must necessarily calculate the cash limit in 2022. Small businesses and individual businesses are exempt from this procedure by default.

**The size of the business is determined according to the criteria established in Article 4 of Law No. 209-FZ:**

**1. Micro enterprises:**

- the average annual number of employees – up to 15 people;
- annual income – up to 120 million rubles.

**2. Small businesses:**

- the average annual number of employees – 15-100 people;
- annual income – 120-800 million rubles.

**3. Medium enterprises:**

- the average annual number of employees – 100-250 people;
- annual income – 800-2000 million rubles.

**4. Large enterprises:**

- the average annual number of employees – over 250 people;
- annual income – more than 2 billion rubles.

**In addition, those enterprises that have:**

- in the statutory fund, the share of medium and large enterprises, and foreign enterprises is 49% or more;
- in the statutory fund, the share of state-owned enterprises, and religious organizations is 25% or more.

It should be noted that in order to get from the category of small enterprises to medium enterprises, it is necessary to meet at least one medium criterion for 3 consecutive years. **Therefore, companies always have time to adjust to a new status.**

Small businesses and individual entrepreneurs can set a cash limit on their own initiative. But from the moment of signing the order approving the restrictions, the companies also begin to be liable for the violation of such norms.

Also, entrepreneurs should take into account that absolutely all business entities are subject to a ban on commercial cash transactions in the amount of more than 100 thousand rubles under one contract. **At the same time, companies can pay out cash without restrictions to ordinary individuals.**

## How to draw up a cash balance limit

Since the cash limit can be checked by the tax office, the company must do everything to carefully document the process of calculating and approving this indicator. **All steps and values must be recorded accordingly. **What needs to be done?

1. Write down the principles and calculation formulas in a local regulatory document, for example, in the Policy for Controlling Cash Transactions.

2. If an enterprise at the very beginning of its activity does not fall into the category of small or individual entrepreneurs, then forecast indicators should be used to calculate the cash limit indicator. In a month, the value can be calculated again using real data.

3. The amount calculated for the first time is fixed by an order for the enterprise. The document is signed by the director.

4. The order must contain the following information:

- limit amount;
- date of entry into force of restrictions;
- Full name of persons responsible for compliance with and control of the cash limit;
- the expiration date of the limit, for example, “2022”.

If the period of validity of the restrictions is not mentioned, then the value will be valid until the publication of a new document. **Also, in the order or in the annex to it, the calculation of the limit with formulas should be indicated directly.**

5. All employees responsible for compliance with and control of the cash limit must familiarize themselves with the order against signature.

6. A new order is issued only if it is necessary to change the amount of the maximum amount of cash.

7. Monthly or quarterly recalculation of the cash limit is also desirable to be printed on paper and signed, at least by the chief accountant. If the indicators for calculations are automatically pulled from 1C, then pressing a few buttons and printing the result of the work will not be. But documentary evidence of the correctness of the calculation will always be available.

**Orders and periodic recalculations should be kept in accordance with the general rules of document flow.**

## Registration of the order for individual entrepreneurs and small businesses

As we have already mentioned, individual entrepreneurs and representatives of small businesses are not required to set a cash limit, and therefore approve it with any document.

At the same time, in order for banks and the Federal Tax Service to ask fewer questions, entrepreneurs can draw up an order for the operation of the cash desk without an established limit. **In this way, the interpretation of the situation about the zero constraint can be avoided.**

## An unapproved cash limit is also a limit

Previously, the size of cash enterprises was partially monitored by banks and other financial and credit organizations. But a few years ago, control functions were transferred to the regional divisions of the Federal Tax Service. **Naturally, the state body began to take checks of cash balances at enterprises with all seriousness.**

For example, the Federal Tax Service believes that if during the audit it turns out that the company did not approve and did not calculate the cash limit in 2022 at all, then this automatically means the approval of the zero limit. That is, at the end of each working day, all cash must be transferred to the bank.

In addition, according to the position of the tax service, the fact of incorrect calculation and overestimation of the limit is also equated to its zero value.

**In fact, such a position of the Federal Tax Service leads to a 100% probability of imposing a fine on an enterprise** that ignored the need to set a limit on the maximum cash balance on hand.

## Formulas for calculating the cash limit in 2022

The Central Bank of the Russian Federation offers enterprises a choice of **two equivalent formulas for calculating cash limits:**

- based on cash flow;
- based on cash receipts.

Let’s analyze each formula in detail.

### Cash-In Formula

**The formula is described by the following equation:**

*Lim \u003d Op / Pp × P, where:*

- Lim – the desired cash limit (rubles);
- Op – the volume of cash receipts for the billing period (rubles);
- Pp – billing period, which is determined by the legal entity arbitrarily, but not more than 92 days;
- P – the average number of days between collections or self-delivery of cash to the bank. The indicator should not be more than 7 days (14 days for settlements without bank branches).

**Calculation example:**

LLC Limited Online decided to calculate the cash limit based on cash receipts from customers. **The initial data is as follows:**

- cash proceeds for the billing quarter amounted to 1,950,000 rubles;
- number of days in a quarter – 90;
- the company delivers revenue 2 times a week, that is, on average, every 3.5 days.

*Lim \u003d 1,950,000 / 90×3.5 \u003d 75833 (rubles).*

In the order, it is best to slightly round the limit down, for example, in our case, up to 75,000 rubles.

### Cash flow formula

**The formula is described by the following equation:**

*Lim \u003d Ov / Pp × P, where:*

- Lim – the desired cash limit (rubles);
- Ov – the amount of cash issued for the billing period, except for expenses within the wage fund (rubles);
- Pp – billing period, which is determined by the legal entity arbitrarily, but not more than 92 days;
- P is the average number of days between cash withdrawals from the bank. The indicator should not be more than 7 days (14 days for settlements without bank branches).

**Calculation example:**

LLC “Limited Online Plus” decided to calculate the cash limit based on cash consumption. **The initial data is as follows:**

- cash expenses for the billing quarter for the purchase of raw materials – 1,500,000 rubles;
- number of days in a quarter – 90;
- the company receives cash from the bank once a week (every 7 days).

*Lim \u003d 1,500,000 / 90×7 \u003d 116,666 (rubles).*

In the order, you can approve the cash limit in the amount of 115,000 rubles.

To calculate accounting and marketing indicators, it is advisable for entrepreneurs to use appropriate trading programs that are integrated with cash registers.

## How often to recalculate the limit?

The legislation does not provide for the validity period and revision of the order for a cash limit in 2022. However, given the maximum length of the billing period of 92 days, it is advisable for an accountant to recalculate the size of the restriction once a quarter so that it does not exceed the established level. **It is not necessary to document such a conversion.**

At the same time, the company can at any time recalculate the indicators and approve a new cash limit. This possibility is unlimited.

## Which is worse: over or under limit

When calculating the cash limit in 2022, you can always make a mistake, and the total amount can be either more or less than the correct one.

Understating the maximum amount that can be left overnight with a legal entity can lead to additional collection costs.

**An overestimation of the same indicator can lead to the imposition of fines by the Federal Tax Service. **During the audit, tax inspectors take the company’s indicators for the last two months for calculation. They compare the limit calculated in this way with the actual balances of money on hand. If the threshold is exceeded, a fine is issued.

In order to avoid errors, it is desirable to calculate the cash limit automatically, although a subsequent manual check will not hurt.

## When can you not comply with the limit?

**Businesses may not comply with the cash limit in 2022 on certain days:**

- days of mass payment of mandatory payments to employees: salaries, benefits, vacation pay and others;
- the day before and during the weekend, if large cash settlements with other companies are planned during this period;
- holidays on which cash payments take place, and banks do not work.

In these cases, you can exceed the limit without fear of getting a fine. But the next day, all excess cash must be transferred to the bank.

## Responsibility for violation of the limit

Responsibility for violation of the procedure for the circulation of cash and settlements with their help is established by Article 15.1 of the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation.

According to the norms of the Code, if the Federal Tax Service reveals the facts of exceeding the cash limit at the end of the working day (with the exception of the cases discussed above), the inspector **must issue fines:**

- for an official of an enterprise who committed a violation – 4000-5000 rubles;
- for the enterprise – 40-50 thousand rubles.

Usually a fine is imposed on an employee (or several), who, according to the job description, are required to monitor compliance with the cash register limit.